Our work has led to the development of a process that manipulates non-equilibrium structures through kinetic control, utilizing a sophisticated combination of mixing and drying techniques to generate LNPs and PNPs with precisely controlled properties. In addition, we employ several synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering techniques integrated with microfluidic device and interfacial apparatus to investigate molecular packing, interactions, degradation, and self-assembly kinetics. Based on the molecular-level information, we can design the LNPs and PNPs to leverage the significant advantages of utilizing these particles for various biomedical applications.
Moving to a different category, Heterogenous toroidal-spiral particles (TSPs) with well-defined internal structure provide a substantial void volume for cell encapsulation and programmed release kinetics of co-encapsulated compounds. TSPs are generated through the self-assembly process of drop sedimentation, interaction, and solidification. Extensive studies on enriched drop dynamics have established guidelines for producing TSPs reproducibly with well-controlled fine structures in a scalable manner. We successfully encapsulate the islets of Langerhans for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell for the treatment of various cancers.